Papaya is an important fruit and vegetable to the people. It can be used as a vegetable on the young stages and as fruit after maturity. Papaya contains very low amount of Fat, Cholesterol, and Sodium. we can get a rich amount of Vitamin A, B6, B12 C, D, Calcium, Iron, and Magnesium from papaya. You will learn all about Importance of papaya cultivation, uses of papaya, production technology etc in this “Step by Step Production Technology of Papaya Fruit” post.
Table of Contents
- 1 Importance of Papaya Cultivation:
- 2 Production Technology of Papaya
- 3 Diseases and Pests Management
- 4 Nutrient deficiency problem
- 5 Harvesting
Importance of Papaya Cultivation:
- An important quick growing fruit of Bangladesh, India, and others country.
- Present production is 105000 tons from 7700 ha in Bangladesh.
- It is a highly problematic, complicated and interesting fruit crop from botanical, genetical, cytogenetical and horticultural points of view.
- Can be cultivated successfully in small space of homestead.
Composition and uses
- Very rich in vitamins like vitamin A, B & C and minerals like P & Ca.
- Possesses high medicinal value.
- The ripe fresh fruits are used as dessert and green fruits are used as a vegetable. Jam, soft drinks, ice-cream flavoring etc can be prepared from ripe fruit.
Characteristics of Shahi Pepe
Sexuality : Dioecious
Plant height: 1.6-2.0 m
Bearing habit: Start bearing from near to ground level
Fruit weight: 850-1000 g
Flesh thickness: 2 cm
Flesh color: Deep Orange
Seeds per fruit: 500-530
Number of fruits/plant: 40-60
Yield: 50 tons
Production Technology of Papaya
Soil and Climate
- Well-drained loam to sandy-loam soil rich in organic matter.
- Papaya thrives well on soil with pH ranging from 5.5 to 7.0.
- Plants are highly sensitive to flooding.
- It has been ranked as not tolerant or extremely sensitive to salt stress.
- The optimum temperature for papaya is 210 to 330 C.
- Papaya is classified as a shade avoiding species.
- Land should be prepared well.
- For quick drainage, bed system must be followed.
- The bed should be 1.7 m wide and 20-25 cm high.
- There should be 30 cm drain in between two beds.
- The length of the bed will be as per land.
- The bed should be raised before pit preparation.
Raising of seedling
- Seeds should be sown in 10 cm apart rows in seedbeds at 3-4 cm distance and 1.0-1.5 cm depth.
- Seeds are also sown in perforated poly bags (15 ´ 10 cm) filled with 50% river silt and 50% cow-dung.
- 2-3 seeds are advised to sow in each poly bag.
- Seeds should be soaked in water for several hours before sowing.
- Watering should be done at 2-3 days interval after seed sowing.
Number of seedlings required
- Pits are prepared at 2 m apart in the beds (2 × 2 m spacing) and three seedlings are transplanted in each pit. So, a total of 7500 seedlings are required for 2500 pits per hectare.
- Pit size should be 60 ´ 60 ´ 45 cm.
- Manure and fertilizers like cow-dung 15 kg, TSP 500g, gypsum 250g, boric acid 20 g, zinc sulphate 20 g are to be applied per pit 10-15 days before transplanting.
Time of seed sowing
- September-October and December-January are two suitable times for seed sowing.
- Seedlings become ready for transplanting at 40-50 days after sowing.
- Three seedlings are to be planted per pit at 30 cm distance in triangular form.
- In case of monoecious type, one seedling is planted per pit.
- Polybag is to be removed carefully keeping ball undisturbed.
- Seedlings are to be placed in the same depth as it was in the bed or in the poly bag.
Top dressing of fertilizers
- 450-500 g each of urea and MP are to be applied per pit.
- 50 g urea and 50 g MP are to be top dressed at one month interval starting from one month after planting.
- The doses should be doubled after flowering.
- Irrigation is essential following top dressing in dry season.
- Papaya field should always be kept weed – free.
- In the rainy season weeding should be done by ‘Hasua’ or lawn mower without loosening the soil.
Irrigation and drainage
- Frequent light irrigation is required during dry season.
- During rainy season quick drainage must be ensured.
Removal of extra plants
- After fruit set two plants from each pit are to be removed keeping the best female plant.
- 5% male should be allowed to facilitate pollination.
- Most of the papaya varieties bear 2-3 fruits per cluster.
- Extra fruits should be thinned out keeping the best one only.
- In 2nd or following years, the plant bears overcrowded fruit. The smaller fruits need to be pruned.
Diseases and Pests Management
Damping off and collar rot
- A serious disease of papaya in the seedbed and causes considerable damage to the crop during the rainy season.
- Damp growing condition favors the disease.
- Seed treatment with Vitavax or Captan @ 2-3 g per kg of seed.
- Sterilization of nursery bed by burning saw dust or rice hull (6 cm thick).
- Soil amendment by poultry litre @ 5 t/ha.
- Solarization of the bed prior to seed sowing.
- Drenching of Ridomoil MZ @ 2 g/L.
- Brown lesions appear on fruits which enlarges with the development of fruit.
- Spraying of Knowin or Topsin @ 2 g/L 2-3 times at 10-15 days interval.
Papaya mosaic virus
- Yellow patches are appeared on leaves and fruits, bending of petiole and plant growth becomes stunted.
- The disease is transmitted by aphid.
Ring spot virus
- The affected plants are in growth, show yellow mottling and distortion of leaves, bending down of petiole followed by death of the plant.
- Oil soaked ring spots are found on stem and fruits. Diseased plants yield little or no crop.
- The disease is transmitted by aphids.
- Uprooting and burning of diseased plant.
- Control of vector.
- Mealybugs suck on leaves, fruits and weaken the plants.
- They also cause sooty mold secreting honey dew.
- Clean cultivation, destruction of infested leaves and fruits with insects.
- Application of Dimethoate 40EC (Perfecthion/ Taphgar) @ 2 ml/L 2-3 times at 15 days interval.
- Nematodes cause root-knot in papaya. The affected plants become weak and dwarf.
- They also facilitate entrance of soil-borne pathogen.
- Infected roots, rain and irrigation water help dissemination of nematode.
- Crop rotation with mustard, groundnut, wheat or maize.
- Application of Furadan 3G @ 5g per pit.
- Soil amendment with poultry liter @ 3 t/ha or MOC @ 300 kg/ha.
Nutrient deficiency problem
- Papaya is highly sensitive to B.
- B deficiency creates three symptoms i) curling of leaves, ii) secretion of latex from developing fruits and iii) deformation of fruits.
- Application of boric acid @ 20 g/pit.
- Spraying of boric acid @ 2 g/L 2-3 times at 10-15 days interval.
- The plants turn the mixed colour of white-green. Leaf venation shows white net-like appearance.
- Spraying of ZnO to leaves @ 2g/L 2-3 times at 10-15 days interval.
- Leaves turn yellow, the plants become weak and show stunted growth. The symptom resembles mosaic virus disease
- Spraying of Thiovit or Cumulas @ 2 g/L 2-3 times at 10-15 days interval
- When the latex of the fruit becomes almost watery, the fruits are considered ready for harvest.
- Fruits for local market can be harvested when they are half ripe.
- Yellow bands have appeared on the fruit surface.
- It may take 12-14 months to harvest the first crop of fruits after transplanting.
- Morning is the best time for harvesting the fruit.
- We should dip the fruit in hot water at 550 C for 5 minutes.