Park Definition: Types, Purpose and Elements

A park is a recreational place where people generally go for passing their free time to enjoy the natural beauty. Park is an important place to the every person. In this “Park Definition: Types, Purpose and Elements” article, I have discussed Park Definition, Types of Park, Purpose of Establishment a park and Elements of a park.

Park Definition: Types, Purpose and Elements

Park Definition: Types, Purpose and Elements


An enclosed vast area of land with different types of garden and natural elements developed in or near city or town mainly for the recreation of a large population is called park.

Park means an area of land with designed and planned planting of trees, shrubs, herbs and usually laid out with walkways, playgrounds and courts for sitting out and recreation purpose.

Characteristics of Park:

♦ In a city, there may be parks of several sizes from very large to medium size and also small gardens are generally found at street intersections.

♦ The small gardens are planted with a view to relieving the eyes of the people passing by or for a short resting period for those who want to use them.

♦ These gardens may be planted with a patch of grass, few flower beds, one or two shade or flowering trees or a group of shrubs and trees.

♦ The medium to large parks are meant for a place of recreation and these are considered as lungs of the cities, these are the places of beauty as well as utility.

♦ The small city park may be an area anything between 5 and 100 hectares or little more.

♦ The rural parks are really very large varying from 200 to 1000 hectares.

♦ The Large wild park may be in an area of thousands of hectares.

  Types of park

  1. Formal park

  • A formal park is laid out in a symmetrical or a geometrical pattern.
  • In this, the design is stiff as everything is done in a straight and narrow way.
  • Everything is planted in straight lines. If there is a plant on the left side of a street or road, a similar plant must be planted at opposite location on the right-hand side.
  • The flower beds, borders and shrubberies are arranged in geometrically designed beads.
  • The formal hedges and topiary are the typical features of a formal park.

2. Informal park

  • In an informal park, the whole design looks informal as the plants and other features arranged in a natural way without following any hard and fast rule.
  • But here also the work has to proceed according to a set and well-thought-out plan, otherwise the creation will not be artistic and attractive.
  • The idea behind this design is to imitate nature.

3. Wild park

– The concept of this park is not only against the formalities, but it also break the rule of landscape styles.

– The main idea is to naturalize plants in shrubberies.

– Grass will remain unsowed as in nature and few bulbous plants should be grown scattered in the grass to imitate a wild scenery.

– Passages are to be opened in the woodland and the creepers are allowed to grow over the trees naturally imitating those of the forests.

In another way parks may be of the following types:-

  1. State and national park
  2. Wild park
  3.  Zoological park
  4. Botanical park
  5. Formal park
  6. Informal park

  Purpose of establishing a park

Park Definition: Types, Purpose and Elements

  • Place for recreation
  • To break monotony of daily routine work
  • To walk in open place
  • To take rest after a day’s hard work
  • To get peace of mind
  • To remove tension of mind
  • It is an element for beauty of a town/city
  • To enjoy natural beauty
  • To spend leisure time with the family members/friends
  • To enjoy the beauty of flora and fauna
  • Place for creativity
  • Natural balance
  • A place for games and cultural functions.

  Elements of a park

  1. Boundary wall
  2. Topiary
  3. Bog garden
  4. Paths and drives
  5. Lake with boat
  6. Conservatory
  7. Lawn
  8. Restaurant/canteen
  9. Instrument for
  10. Arches and pergolas
  11. Hanging bridge
  12. children game
  13. Water garden
  14. Praying place
  15. Aquarium
  16. Rock garden
  17. Guide house
  18. Small zoo
  19. Waterfall, fountain and stream
  20. Umbrella and sitting bench
  21. Beds of seasonal flower
  22. Office
  23. Shrubberies
  24. Woodland
  25. Steps and stepping stones
  26. Hedge and edge



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