Gerbera is an important cut flower of the International flower market. It is the one among 10 cut flowers in the International flower market. This is really important to know How to Grow Gerbera Flowers easily in your home garden or commercially. Gerbera Flowers are cultivated in many countries of the world to meet up the demand of the local market as well as to satisfy the demand of the export market. Gerbera is a perennial herbaceous plant and bears flowers of varieties color and size on a long stalk.
Sc.name: Gerbera spp.
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Classification of Gerbera Flowers
There are a quite large number of gerbera varieties that are being cultivated. They are classified according to their structure, time of production, size and shape. That’s are described below –
a) Standard: Flowers are 10 – 12cm in diameter; 120 – 300 flowers are produced annually in a square meter area. Var. Carambole, Red explosion etc.
b) Mini: Flowers are 6 – 9cm in diameter; 280 – 550 flowers are produced every year in a square meter area. Var.Finlay, Pirelli, Regency etc.
c) Standard spider: Flowers are 10 – 12cm in dia.; 150 – 225 flowers are produced every year pera sq m, area. Var. Alaska, Yellow brush etc.
d) Mini spider: Flowers are 6 – 8cm in dia.; 250-500 flowers are produced per sq.m area. Var. Crazy, Dark spinner, Hippi, Zippy etc.
how to grow gerbera flowers
There are lots of peoples want to know How to Grow Gerbera Flowers and how to care them. The steps of growing gerbera Flowers are as the following…
Generally, Gerbera is cultivated in Green House for quality flower production. Bright sunlight favors its vegetative growth as well as help producing flowers for a longer period. Full sunlight is essential for its flower production throughout the year except summer when 30% shade is given and the temperature is controlled for its cultivation. Excess shading may cause light green color development in the leaf and the flower stalk becomes too long and weak. On the other hand, excess sunlight causes yellowing of leaves and the flower stalk becomes short and tough. Generally flowering occurs earlier in the winter months, whereas it is delayed during the summer months. Night temperature plays an important role in gerbera cultivation. Generally at a night temperature between 18 – 200C the transplants develop root within a month time and reaches the productive stage. Afterward, this may be lowered down to 15 – 180C. The temperature should not go beyond 250C. High humidity in gerbera production is not desirable. This favors the development of the disease caused by Botrytis. For this reason, 70% humidity should be maintained at day time and that of 85% should be maintained at night while growing in the greenhouse.
Well-drained, light loam to sandy loam is preferred by gerbera. Generally, the proportion of soil and organic manure should be 70: 30. If gerbera is cultivated in sandy soil a huge incorporation of well rotten cow dung will be needed.
Propagation of gerbera
Gerbera can be propagated both sexually and asexually. Sexually by seed which takes a long time. Seed propagation is done while new variety is developed by hybridization. In the asexual method, one or two seedlings are separated from the bunch and are planted. Apart from this, they can be propagated by cutting. At present for commercial production of gerbera planting materials are produced by tissue culture
Manures and fertilizers @ of 60kg well rotten organic manure, 1.15kg urea or 1kg Ammonium phosphate, 2.5kg TSP, 500g MP and 500g Magnesium Sulfate should be well mixed with the soil of 10m2 (10m x 1m) bed. Gerbera is a fast growing plant and it starts flowering within 10 – 12 weeks of planting and for that they should be fed well. Depending on the growth of the plant 1% urea may be applied as foliar spray
For cut flower production they can either be cultivated in beds or in pots. Beds of 10m x 1 – 1.2m with a 30 – 45cm height should be prepared. A distance of 50cm should be maintained between two beds. The soil of the bed should be disinfected by covering the beds with black polyethylene sheet for 1 – 2 weeks. The seedlings are planted in rows maintaining a spacing of 20cm x20cm or 30cm x 30cm. Planting should be done in the late afternoon. Care should be taken so that the crown of the seedling is not covered at any time by anything. It should be left open. Planting should be followed by watering. If needed the planted seedlings should be given shade for a couple of days to help seedlings early establishment in the field.
Gerbera has a tap root system. As such they are deep rooted plant and like flood irrigation. Every irrigation should be followed by mulching as soon as the soil becomes workable after irrigation. Excess water must be drained out from the gerbera field. Generally frequent irrigation is necessary during the dry season and that requirement becomes less during the rainy season.
Harvesting of flower
Full bloom flowers should be harvested. In the case of gerbera, the flowers should be harvested by twisting the flower stalk not by cutting with a sharp knife. The flowers should be harvested with a long stalk. Immediately after harvesting the flowers should be immersed in water up to the neck of the flower stalk so that they remain fresh.
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