Evolution of Man and Agriculture – Stages Evaluation

Once upon a time, there had no communication among the peoples. All people were living on jungle and eat the leaves of tree. There had no cloth to ware. It have been changed to a modern life now. This is the Evolution of Man and Agriculture. There have some Stages Evaluation. The Evolution of Man and Agriculture – Stages Evaluation are described as following-

Evolution of Man and Agriculture - Stages Evaluation
The evaluation of agriculture is changed the life style of peoples.

Evolution of Man and Agriculture

Emergence of Homo erectus       : 1.5 million years ago

Spreading of Homo erectus         : 1.0 million years ago

(Old tropics and later to temperate regions) Control and use of fire:  500,000 years ago

Homo sapiens (direct ancestor of modern man):  250,000 years ago

Homo sapiens                     : 35,000 years ago (in Africa)

(Large brain, small teeth and chin, making and using tools. Hunting a variety of animals and cooked their met on fire; first domesticated dog and used in hunting, collection of seeds, leaves and fruits from jungle)

Invention of Agriculture   by Man: 10,000 years ago

Modern Agriculture started                : Early 18 th Century

Agricultural science (van Helmont ): 1577-1644 AD

Commercialization of agriculture (in India): 16th Century AD

1500 B.C               Cultivation of sugarcane, irrigation from wells

1400 B.C               Use of iron

15 Century AD   Cultivation of sweet orange, sour orange, wild brinjal pomegranate

16th Century AD Introduction of several crops by Portuguese. They are; potato, sweet potato , arrow roots, cassava, tomato, chilies, pumpkin, papaya, pineapple, guava, custard apple, ground nuts, cashew nuts, tobacco, American cotton and rubber

Evolution of Man and Agriculture - Stages Evaluation
There have different types of theory on the evaluation of man.

Evolution of Agriculture

There are five stages of agriculture evolution. These stages are-

1 Primary/primitive/root grabbing stage

2 Hunting and old stone stage

3 Fire and new stone stage

4 Animal domestication/husbandry stage

5 Crop husbandry /production stage

Stages of Evolution

1. Primary/primitive/root graving stage:

Arrival of human being on earth. Nomadic nature always frightened by wild animals. Shelter in earth holes, caves, branches of trees. No idea about food. Live on natural fruits and roots.

2. Hunting and old stone stage:

Learned to save from attacks of wild animals by throwing  big stones at them,  learned to make arms by breaking large stones for hunting, started to eat flesh of wild animals, women started to wear animal skins and collecting fruits and roots from the near households.

3. Fire and new stone stage:

Able to make fire and prepare improved arms. Make sharp arms by rubbing one stone with another. Learned to burn flesh and started to ear burnt flesh. Started to change the insecure condition of the people.

4. Animal domestication /husbandry stage:

Man became expert in hunting. Hunt more than one animal and ate them as per requirement. Excess and gentle animals were kept for future use. Cattle, goat, sheep dog and ass were domesticated. Eat natural fruits and roots but did not know how to produce them. Move from one location to other in search of foods and shelter

5. Crop Production stage:

Thousands of years after the nomadic life, people wanted to settle down as they were tired of moving from one place to the other. They observed sprouts of maize kept on the graveyards. Women nurtured the plants from her intuition ton harvest next. Thus women are regarded as the pioneers of agriculture. People started to use fire and digging land by sticks and branches of trees. They started to prepare garden plots to grow small grains.

Evaluation of Man on the Earth:

TIME Years Ago

Events

20-50 Thousand Modern MAN, modern plants and animals
1-60 million Evolution of higher mamals and plants, greater diversification and distribution of flowering plants
50 million Some mamals enter the ocean. Continuing diversification and distribution of flowering plants
100-150 million FIRST Mamals and FIRST BIRDS. Increasing diversification and distribution of flowering plants
125-200 million Rise and predominance of REPTILES. Development of extensive gymnosperm forests. Rise of flowering plants

 

TIME YEARS AGO

EVENTS

250-300 million First amphibians, insects, mosses, ferns, rise of dense swamp forests, w/c later formed major coal beds of the world.
350 million FIRST successful invasion of land by animals and plants. Appearance of first vertebrates as ancient fish in the sea.
500 million Ancestors of all major groups of invertebrates present in the ocean, also algae and ancient sea weeds
1 Billion ORIGIN OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Increasing population of unicellular and simpler multi cellular organisms include many invertebrates in the seas.

 

2-5 Billion Formation of increasing complex organic molecules in primeval seas, ORIGIN OF LIFE!!!
5-6 Billion Formation of earth and other member of solar system
10 Billion ORIGIN OF UNIVERSE?????
Source: Alvin Nason : Essentials of Modern Biology P 22

Considering to Evolution of Man and Agriculture – Stages Evaluation post, we got all the idea about how come the modern life.

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