Dahlia Flower: How to Grow and Care Dahlias

Dahlia flower is very much popular winter flower grown in the world. It has been named as dahlia after the name of famous Swedish botanist Andreas Gustav Dahl. The plant of dahlia flower has a soft stem and it reaches a height of 50 – 150cm. Depending on the class and variety, the dahlia flowers come from 5 – 20cm diameter. Dahlias are grown throughout the world for garden decoration, cut flower, floral decoration etc.

Dahlia Flower: How to Grow and Care Dahlias

Dahlia Flower: How to Grow and Care Dahlias
Fig: Dahlia Flower

Scientific name: Dahlia imperiais

Family: Compositae

Origin: Mexico

Production method of Dahlia

Climate and soil:

Dahlia flower cannot withstand too cold or too hot climate. Moderate temperature with mild humidity is rapid for its cultivation. The annual rainfall of 50 – 60 cm is optimum. Organic matter rich fertile loamy soil is ideal for dahlia flower production. Clay soil may be used but after soil amendment with sufficient sand & organic matter. Soil pH 6.5, open and sunny place but sheltered from strong wind

Varieties:

The popular varieties of Dahlia Flower are Croydon, Masterpiece, Fancy Free, Kelvin Rose, Arab Queen etc.

Propagation of Dahlia Flower

Sexually by seed, and asexually by tuberous root (whole or division), slip cuttings and stem cuttings.

By seedling

Seeds sowed 5cm apart in trays in the 10 – 15 cm row distance or shallow pan in which a mixture of 50: 50 sand and compost are filled in. Seeds are sown 1cm deep in the soil. Seed germinates within 8 – 10 days. Seedlings are planted in the main field after the seedlings are ready for easy handling.

By Tuberous root

DAHLIA FLOWER develops fascicule roots where buds develop near the base of the stem. Whole roots are separated and planted, or it is cut into halves longitudinally and planted. Propagation by this method requires a huge number of roots. As such this is an expensive method.

By stem cutting and slip cutting

Slips develop on the junction of tuberous roots and the stem during July-August, when the dry roots with the short stem are placed in wet sand. Slips are cut at a length of 8 – 10cm and placed in moist sand. Terminal cuttings of 8 – 10cm are planted similarly. Rooting occurs easily and more profusely if the base is treated with IBA at a concentration of 2000ppm for 10 seconds. IBA is dissolved in 50% ethanol. Planting is done during October – November in Bangladesh.

Land preparation and fertilizer application

Dahlia flowers are grown commercially in the field and in the pot for different decoration purposes. The land should be well prepared lengthwise 1.2 – 1.5m wide and with manageable length. Cow dung @ 5kg/m should be well mixed with bed soil along with 200g SSP.

Planting

This is very important that How deep do you plant dahlia tubers? Seedlings become ready in 25 – 30 days for transplanting of the dahlia flower. Cuttings are uprooted carefully and planted in the afternoon. Watering is done immediately after transplanting. Plants are spaced at 75cm for tall, 60cm for medium and 30 – 45cm for dwarf varieties. Shade is given for consecutive 3 -4 days to set the cuttings. These are removed once the cuttings are set.

Aftercare of Dahlia Flower

Dahlia Flower: How to Grow and Care Dahlias
Fig: Care of Dahlia Flower

Pinching should be done to regulate a number of branches when the plants are 15 – 20cm tall. 4 – 5 branches are kept for flowering. When the Dahlia Flower plants are tall each plant should be staked with a hard stick to protect them from heavy wind. Weeding and mulching are done from time to time according to the necessity. Pruning and disbudding should be done to get the quality flower. If one wants to get a large flower keeping the central bud, two side buds are removed. Otherwise for medium size flowers central bud is removed and two side buds are kept.

Harvesting and post-harvesting handling

Dahlia flower blooms are cut in the early morning. Immediately after harvesting cut flowers are placed in half bucketful of water immersing up to the neck of the flower stalk. The bucket should be placed in a dark and cold room for long vase life. Flowers are cut when they are 2/3rd open. The dahlia flowers will store better at 40 C for 3 – 5 days.

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